Fredag, ISES

Hilary Clayton i plenarföreläsning, från i onsdags, fyller i lite mer:

Aachengrimmans nedre rem ger ofta problem, klämmer. Röntgenfilm visar att tungan delvis kommer  över bettet, mittdelen av tungan, tungspetsen är kvar under bettet. Oväntat vanligt, dvs överraskande stor andel av hästarna i studien. Hästar som gapar undviker att bettet går mot hårda gommen, hästar tycker inte om att få något mot hårda gommen/gomtaket; observation från HC, men inte vetenskapligt baserad, dock forskat på hästmunnar sen 30 år. 

 

Test med inspänningstyglar för att få bort ryttarens inverkan på mätinstrumentet, fortfarande regelbundna peaks på tre kilo vid oelastisk tygel i trav, ner till ett kilo på elastisk tygel, men häst lutar sig lite i tygeln i sin mekaniska rörelse framåt, oavsett. Tre peaks/nickningar per sekund, svårt följa med i handen, om ens önskvärt. Fråga om hästen söker stödet, om det ens är att betrakta som något negativt.

 

Ny studie – inte klar – om tryck på nosrygg och nacke vid ridning utan bett. Första resultat visar ökat tryck på nosen vid trav och galopp och betydligt större vid bettlöst huvudlag, mer än dubbelt mot hårt åtdragen nosgrimma på träns. 

 

 

Patricia de Cocq, biomechanical interaction between horse and rider – more extended back movement with a rider/weight. Bakre bröstryggen rör sig mycket i galopp, enligt film med färgpluttar. Stora peaks i lättridning, tynger i stigbyglarna eller reser sig bara? På hästar med stor gång kan få peaks på tre gånger ryttarens vikt. 

 

Christine Aurich, Heart rate, cortisol, body temperature when lunged in hyperflexion – högre cortisolhalt på morgonen, liksom på människor, i normalt tillstånd. Högre vid linlöpning, men samma för hyperflexion som fritt huvud, likadant med HR. Termografin visar lägre temperatur/cirkulation på halsens bakre del vid hyperflex, men osäkert vad som påverkat, eftersom mäter yttemp och skinnet kan ha rynkats mer elller mindre vid olika huvudställningar. 

 

Janne Winter Christensen, Link between performance and HR in new environments – 25 warmblood geldings 2-3 years old. Learning moment three times at home, but no correlation between doing well at home and in novel environment, but rise in HR in the novel environment. Cortisol lower in higher ranked horse. If habituate to a wider range of stimuli, tend to get less reactive in novel environment, another study.

 

Veronica Fowler, Monty Roberts technique contra conventional UK initial training – less than ten papers have been done on initial training of horses. Monty Roberts and Phil Roelich for each type of training. Testade hästar så fick par som liknande varandra i beteende. 30 min per dag och tränare i 20 dgr. MR red under första dagen av period 1-7 dgr, inga av PRs ridna då. Inte lägre HR i MRs grupp vid första uppsittning, men lägre högsta HR och MRs kom betydligt längre i träningen. Paul McGreevy kommentar: risk att tolkas som jämförelse mellan två tränare. Såg Monty R vid frukosten på hotellet och i vimlet på Academy Bartels, men hörde inte att han kommenterat.

 

Hilary Clayton, Conventional saddle trees and tre-less – same weight, stirrup leathers removed. Total force no difference between saddles, equal force between left and right side on both saddles, but greater on the middle part on the treeless. Treeless had significantly smaller contact area, as would have thought, mean maximal pressure also higher and significantly more sensors with pressure over 11 kPa. Distribution of the weight gerater in conventional saddle. Lightweight rider in slow gaits used. Conventional saddle was a reasonably good fit on all the horses, reason for chosing treeless often because cannot find a fitting saddle, would be interesting to compare with an ill-fitting conventional. 

 

Angelo Telatin, use of investigating behaviour to improve training of the show jumping horse – got unlimited time to investigate, but did not let the horse go away, encouraging telescopic behaviour with nostrils and tactile approach. The under-eight-year-olds improved the jumping ability, for the older horses the results differed, further studies needed. 

The horses who got positive reinforcement now investigated fearful objects without being asked. Do not think is an age factor, more that much of the flight behaviour has been ingrained. 

 

Klaske v d Horst et al, effect of type on bit on behaviour and performance – tongue attached with the muscles of the neck. Compared Myler 2-3/with cylinder, curved and independently movable in parts but does not bend, with traditional. HRVariability is higher stress level? Difference in HRV in one of the tests, greater with Myler. No difference in frequency in opening of the mouth. Differences in saliva, less in five horse with Myler, but too small a number to be certain. Myler 2-3 possibly improves welfare, but preference seems individual from horse to horse.

 

Susan Lloyd and Shan Lloyd, on learning in the ridden horse – learn to stop from a whistle without a rein aid. Tasty fluid in device along the neck, operated immediately by the rider. Each horse made their choice for taste before the test, all choose molasses. 7 out of 9 passed the test, but only one in control group that did not get tasty fluid reward. Each horse had 7 learning opportunities, repetitions up to 34 times in control horses. 

 

Katrine Elmgreen et al, is there a difference between positive and negative reinforcement – positive reinforcement more effective and less stressful in loading. Critique, what about naive horses? Training triangle of finances, safety and welfare. 20 2-5-year-olds Icelandic never been handled. 

Trained to follow, stand and stay upon a signal. Pressure on lead rope, if did not follow increased and released as soon as took a step forward. Positive, addition of a stimulus to increase the behaviour, here a treat and a whistle.

Behaviour reflecting discomfort, effectiveness, HR, HRV/measure distance between peaks different ways to see parasymp and symp reactions. 

More discomfort in negative reinforcement, especially in beginning. HR same but horse was in movement, but other variables on HRV showed negative reinforcement more stressful reactions.

Negatively reinforced horses progress further. Positively reinforced horses were less stressful and quicker, works better on stressed horses. Though positively reinforced horses went up closer to handler to get treats, they were more demanding.

 

Lesley Hawson et al, leg cues – notice a decrease in pressure at the end of the cue in force vs time in experienced rider, the resting level all over the place and much less than in experienced, intermediate rider has higher than experienced. Experienced rider cue for longer duration. 

 

Sol och varmt som en sval sommardag och hästarna har täcke, t o m två – och är inte klippta! Men faktiskt en utan täcke alls. När ska man hinna kolla alla posterpresentationerna? Samlade lite kopior.

 

Chris Rogers, early exercise in the horse – muscoskeletal injury main reason for wastage in horses. Cursorial animal, to run. Skeleton responded readily in four-day-olds that had gentle training/running, as bone got denser and larger, cartilage responded also but tendons did not. When is the window for tissue modification still open and what is the effect of early introduction to sport? 

Yearling preparation included walk, the ones that had done most walking were less prone to injury as two-year-olds on racetrack. French SJ four-year-olds had longer careers than other SJs. No set recipe for optimal exercise, had 30 percent higher exercise than being at pasture, but if doubled that, would it be an overload?

 

Alessandro Cozzi, equine appeasing pheromone during cognitive tests after transports – bonding mare and foal, testing also for training, leaving foal alone, stereotypies etc. Nasal gel. Control group had higher HR during cognitive test after stressful situation. 

 

Francesca Neijenhuis et al, welfare monitoring system – animal based rather than environmental based/ex stables. Gait, back, gums, mouth corners most interesting points. 150 horse farms, with approximately 3.000 animals in all, have been assessed. Horses 18 years and older and competing horses were less prone to show lameness than horses four years and younger plus horses out of competition. Senitivity of the back was most prevalent in horses used for riding lessons, followed by horses used for recreation, competition and breeding.

 

Stephanie Martens, HR, lactate and velocity between training and competition in high star eventers in German Olympic team – all parameters significantly higher during competition than training, pasture and training in walk takes most time. If that is left out, dressage is highest, then light work. Focus more on technical training than stamina/condition. Only 4 percent is gallop

 

LC Hardeman, locomotion asymmetry in sound horses using a sensory device – horses routinely lead from the left, different results, on clockwise circle the right fore moves asymetrically/bigger step, in stance prefer leaving right fore behind and having left fore in front, also seen in foals.

 

Carolien Munsters et al, quantifying stress – showed relatively little stress but cannot be entirely reliable to assess police horse material. Some horses showed higher HR but did not show flight behaviour. 

 

Randle and McGreevy, noseband tightness and rein tension – increase in rein tension with slackening the noseband, decrease when tightening but not as much. 

 

Blänkande frieserhäst med otrolig svans mellan huvudrätt och efterrätt. Lyxigt med kristallkronor i ridhuset och ett glas vin på avsatsen framför. Tinneke Bartels presenterade och instruerade. Hästen Anders är född i rollkur, så man får jobba med att rulla ut hans hals, berättade ryttaren. Svansen bra på att dölja skevheter vid ridning rakt från domaren. Tinneke B tyckte synd ta bort hovskägget, men straffas minst två poäng om får vara kvar.

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