ISES torsdag 18 juli
Om luftkonditioneringen på vandrarhemmet dånade var det ingenting mot den på det ruskigt fula studenthemmet på University of Delaware. I korridoren stod stora luftavfuktare, som bidrog till decibelen. Plastöverdragen madrass, vilket en del delegater kommenterade som vårdhemskänsla. Åttonde våningen, tror det fanns lika många till, grå betong när det mesta övriga på campus var i rött tegel.
I invigningstalet förklarade rektorn de återkommande blå hönsen, som i lösenordet till gästuppkopplingen och skulpturen jag sprang förbi på morgonen, när det fortfarande gick att röra sig ute. Under inbördeskriget hade någon befälhavare särskilt duktiga stridsruppar med sig för underhållningsdetaljen i fält, och de härstammade från en berömd blå höna. Rektorn berättade också att både president Obama och hans fru studerat vid University of Delaware. Som för övrigt verkar gammalt efter amerikanska mått, från 1743.
Plenarföreläsning - Natalie Waran, Hayley Randle - Advancing evidence-based learning and practice in equitation
Horse riding increasingly popular, post Olympic has seen an increase in popularity, also gives governmental funding in the UK - "Trot to be trim" - but the darker side being more accidents, and riding accidents are more serious. They do not occur at big events, but rather when people go for a nice hack. Horse-riding is 20 times as dangerous as motor cycling. 70 percent are due to the behaviour of the horse.
What do we do? Put on a lot of safety gear, but what about the horse? When your child eventually gets a car, things are very regulated, and you don't have to say that the brakes only work occasionally and turning right doesn't always work, but we put our children on horses.
Traditional methods appear effective, but we don't smack children anymore. Up to recently, the absence of poor welfare has been an equal to good welfare. How do we future-proof equitation? Embedding a questioning approach, changeing attitudes. Evidence has to resonate with the public norm. Evidence-based learning, evidence-based practice.
Embedding an evidence-based culture, what can you measure? Equipment as in rein, saddle, leg pressure. Training methods like round pens, rollkur, reinforcement. Rider attributes/position, physiology. Judges/scoring.
The ISES conferences abstract submission criteria are: original research, hypothesis driven, primary data, reliable statistical analysis. More research should lead to more evidence-based practice. Is there enough evidence of uptake by judges, owners, stewards, trainers, coaches, riders? What are the barriers?
Needed: a call for evidence-based practice. Education technology; ipads, video phones.
Karin Bump - Using models of legitimacy to build messages about equitation sciences
In getting the message out it is useful to frame the message. 1 percent of animal suffering is the result of deliberate cruelty, the rest of ignorance and poor knowledge. Views of legitimacy - what we think is right and proper.
Three levels: Pragmatic legitimacy/mutual beneficial outcomes, as in when horses were working animals. Moral/right and appropriate. Cognitive/message framed so an audience is unable to imagine the environment without access to equitation science.
Inga Wolframm et al - Sport psychological skills in jumping riders
Performance improves with use of mental skills. Amateur riders focus more on external happenings. By developing a questionnaire to suit equestrian sports the psychological skills in jumping riders could be investigated. A significant difference in automatation between top and amateur riders was noticed. Females were also more inclined to negative thinking. The longer you've competed, the more you use mental skills.
Inga Wolframm et al - Mirror, mirror, self psychology and animals, why are people drawn to having animals?
The concept of self-psychology: Mirroring/affirm, confirm and recognize the self in its grandness. Idealizing self objects/providing opportunity to become part of an admired or respected self object, competing. Alter-ego or twinship/finding a soul-mate, becoming one with the horse.
Females tend to do more. The longer you've been into horses the less you do. The longer you've owned a horse, the more you tend to mirror twinship. Danger in this, as we tend to not treat them as horses.
Payana Hendriksen - Is there a need for improving the understanding of horse behaviour?
Danish Animal Welfare Society, 72.000 members. Denmark has 170.000 horses, 140.000 riders, 500 registered riding schools. Accidents: 9.000 in hospitals, 10-15 years of age in majority. 50 percent are from a fall off the horse.
A campaign called Horse in harmony has a website with examples and quizes and tests. Test result: 4.539 participants, 10-14 year olds targeted, but more aldults answered. Best results when in the 30's, women. Adults rated thenselves higher in horse knowledge even when they were not. People could see if a horse showed conflict or relaxation, but could not say how they saw it.
Rose Scofield et al - Road safety, is there a realationship between near misses and the use of reflective gear?
Vehicle drivers have different hazard perception than horse riders, also are younger drivers more frustrated over slow moving objects, like horses.
In a questionnaire 60,3 percent had experienced near misses when riding in traffic during the past year. There was no difference between wearing fluorescent gear on riders or horses.. Incidence of near misses went down when carrying lights, but only 8,2 percent in the survey were wearing lights.
Plenarföreläsning - Hilary Clayton - Research on the human-saddle-horse interference
Force, area, pressure can be measured using a an electronic saddle pressure mat.
Force is exerted when two objects are in contact, causes a change in movement, direction, shape, vector described by magnitude, direction and point of application/centre of pressure.
Force is much less when riding bareback, probably because of the shearing force; distribution over legs and thus a larger contsct area. Walk has very narrow range between peaks, and is a stable force. Trot has a bigger difference, twice as big as the rider's weight. Canter is different, but both peaks and lows are higher on a scale, the force three times the rider's weight.
Max force is a good measure for effectiveness in saddle pads. Reindeer has proved to be best in absorbing force/reducing peaks, sheepskin is also good. Flat panels on the saddle is easier to fit than rounded.
Pressure is force over area. 10 Newton per cm2 = 1 kPa. Capillary pressure 4,3 kPa, and a higher pressure from the saddle may cause tissue necrosis. Dry spots under the saddle means high pressure cutting off blood supply to the sweat glands. Mean pressure 11 kPa, max 30 kPa to injure a horse's back.
Line Peerstrup Ahrendt & Janne Winther Christensen - Development of a new method for objective measurements of learning through negative reinforcement
The study used an algometer to measure pressure with a probe resembling a human finger, to make the horse move the quarters laterally/sideways. The horses did not respond to the same pressure on both sides, lighter on the left side. These horses were not very much handled, so humans doing things mainly from that side should not make a difference. Also horses needed less pressure after two days of training, showing they can learn to respond to less pressure. Furthermore, when they responded to a light pressure on one side, they did the same on the other side.
Robert Cook - A method of measuring bit-induced pain and distress in the ridden horse
The crossunder bitless bridle. 55 out of 56 horses showed significantly fewer unwanted behaviours when bitless = a 98 percent improvement.
Michaela Minero et al - Development of a facial expressions pain scale in horses undergoing routine castration
A facial coding system has here been developed into a standardized pain scale. More pain related expressions were noticed on castrated horses. The six expressions in the scale were: stiffly backwards ears, orbital tightening, tension above the eye area, strained chewing muscles, mouth strained and pronounced chin, strained nostrils and flattening of the profile.
There was no difference between horses given Flunixin-Meglumine anti-inflammatory injections only before operation compared to before and after. A significant difference was noticed in horses that were not given injection(s).
Hayley Randle et al - Qualitative versus quantitative assessment of rein tension, what can be learnt?
Terminology, what is contact? Feel? Elastic? Give and take? Communication? Concept/an abstract idea vs percept/individual interpretation through experience. Generally rein tension was far less than percieved (riders thinking they have a stronger contact). Professionals, riders aged 18-30 years and males had a slightly better perception of their actual rein tension than other groups.
There is a clear difference between what riders think they are doing and what they actually are doing.
Orla Doherty et al – Two methods of measuring in-vivo pressures applied by a cavesson noseband
Tension and curvature/narrow noseband and bony prominence = higher pressure. The noseband is being stretched on every stride. Peaks occur while doing transitions and jerks. Internal stitching of the noseband is not flat, increases the pressure.
Kathrin Kienapfel et al - The effect of different head-neck positions on the EMG activity of the splenius, trapezius and brachiocephalius
The splenius muscle is less active in hyperflexion, more in the free position. Brachiocephalicus had more lateral differences, and in hyperflexion the horse could lift the front legs higher. Trapezius is less active in hyperflexion, its strongest activity in the free position.
Kathrin Kienapfel and Yvonne Link - Impact of head-neck positions on the expressive behaviour of dressage horses
The warm up area of the shows used for the study had tail-swishing as a very prominent behaviour. Horses changed the head-neck positions to a more open in competition than in the warm up area. A majority of the horses were ridden behind the vertical, contrary to the rules.
Johanna Ternström et al - Applications and use of smart textiles and technology in equine science
We need ways to detect physical parameters, they have to be cheap among other things, to be incorporated into the horse's normal equipment. Smart textiles that react on external stimuli, ex elastic measuring of respiration. The material is used in human medicine, but can also be used for horses.
Pressure sensors that are very thin, flexible as clothes, can be incorporated in saddle blankets, girths, rider's jods, nosebands.
Elongation sensors measure electrical properties to measure data, ex into an elastic girth to measure effect of a girth, respiration, jaw movement, leg swellings. ECG has been placed under an elastic girth but can be incorporated into saddlery, for training/HR in longtime measurement.
Skräckinjagande blå stridshöna i kraftig plåt.
Säng på höga ben och plastöverdragen madrass som lät när man vände sig.
Rejäla luftavfuktare prydde den lika rejäla som sterila studentkorridoren.
De två tornen kallades studentbostäderna i grå betong, som reste sig över den i övrigt prydliga tegelbebyggelsen. Svettigt redan på morgonen.
Om husen vi bodde i var trista, var utsikten från åttonde våningen desto angenämare.
Morgonrunda i lummiga campusomgivningar, luftledningar överallt.
Nyckeln till att träna en häst återkom i åtskilliga studiepresentationer.
Vad säger vi till hästarna? Är vi konsekventa? Förstår de oss?
Hugg och slag, bara i det förgångna? Tja, vi slår ju inte barn längre.