ISES 2015 7 augusti

Marina (Nina) von Keyserlingk and Daniel M Weary - Scientific assessment of the emotional states of animals
How do we assess emotion, pain? What horse has better welfare? What emphasis do you place on different aspects of the management? What is animal welfare? For some people it is high performance and good health, for others living a reasonably good life or living free from fear or pain.
Three constituents of animal welfare, widely accepted:
1. Biological functioning in health, growth, productivity. 
2. Natural living, consistent with their evolutionary history, in incorporating important aspects of nature into management.
3. Affective states as in free of negative states and experiencing positive states. 
Natural life - the challenge is to develop an understanding of which behaviours are important to the animals. Ex. giving a choice might reveal that the animal may not necessarily be out on pasture if it's hot, even though there's plenty of grass. 
Affective states - preference testing is a fairly good way to evaluate what matters to the animal. Evaluating emotions like pain in animals is one of the most important challenges. Is the pain brief? We can measure that. Does the pain matter? Is the glass half empty or half full/one person might feel coming down with a flu is tremendously uncomfortable while others might feel it's not so bad spending a day in bed. 
Social isolation affects cognitive development in rodents; cognitive rigidity, neophobia, decreased synaptic plasticity. 
Cognitive testing on calves that were separated at birth and on calves that had social housing with their dams (who were then milked as usual). Last group learned a game at once and also at once learned when the rules were reversed, while first (standard) group did not learn the reversed rules, not even seven days after the experiment was finished (student felt sorry for them and spent extra time to give them more chances). 
Each of these concerns can be studied scientifically. 
Comments from audience: So weaning foals as early as we often do may have a negative impact on the future use of the horse, worth thinking about.
Natalie Waran - Can we measure happiness in horses?
What is happiness in humans? A range of positive or pleasant emotions ranging from joy to content. Positive emotions equals good welfare, on animals, their needs are likely to be met and welfare is good. 
Happiness is written in the FEI dressage rules, a happy athlete. Putting out the tongue, swishing of the tail as negative in the rules book. 
How can it be reliably measured? Have to find the indirect measurements when animals have choices. New research on giggling rats when tickle each other or being tickled by a human (Google). Examples of pleasure seeking,  in play or mutual grooming.
Studies of positive facial and bodily expressions. Tail lifting etc. 
Showing table of four boxes: High arousal to low and positive to negative situation/expression as to axes, emotion extremes diagonally from low positive to high negstive and low negative to high positive. 
Sara Hintze et al - what eye wrinkles in horses tell us about their emotional state
Wrinkles above the eye ball are caused by the inner eye brow raiser. Comparison is sometimes done to humans for sadness, same as is said to indicate pain in horses. 
The study hypothesized that wrinkle is negative and relaxed eye muscles/no wrinkles are positive in emotion. Looked at angles, number of wrinkles. 
The more contracted the muscle, the more you see of the eye white. More wrinkles and eye white in negative situations/plastic bag than in positive/food. There was less eye white with petting than with food reward, and in the negative situations of food competition and waving a plastic bag, for the left eye. For the right eye, there was less eye white with petting than with plastic bag, only.
Petting thus relaxed the eye muscle, while food competition induced muscle contraction, which gave the wrinkle a sharper angle.
No clear evidence, but have got the tools for further studies, also on facial expressions and body posture/expression. 
Zoe W Thorbergson et al - Wither scratching during riding
Are there different responses to neck patting and wither scratching from the rider? A relaxed horse is regarded as being in a better state to learn and respond to aids, and there is no horse-to-horse interaction in patting as there is in grooming, which could be imitated by scratching. 
Recorded agitated, ambigous and relaxed behaviours during a short obstacle course with one minute of the test treatments.
Ears back and open mouth, tail swishing for longer time in control test/no pstting or scratching and neck patting than at wither scratching. 
Control test and neck patting test displayed more agitated behaviours than wither scratching test.. Unexpectedly, the agitated behavioura were similar for the patted horses and the ones that were neither patted nor stratched.
L.inda greening et al - Equine sleep and performance
What do and do we not understand about sleep in horses? Could sleep affect performance?
Distinct differences between oral/cribbing and locomotive/weaving behaviour over the day and night.
We do know that sleep is important for humans and REM sleep for memory.
Is there a correlation between standing, sternal and on the side sleep for performance?
Nocturnal behaviour recorded, test of show jumping course of seven jumps. The horses were stabled where they they had been for at least six months. 
Sternal recumbency linked, the more, the better performance of the horse. Also more standing sleep correlated to better performance. Low intensity test, so could be either brain rest or muscle rest. Preliminary study, need to go further, also incorporating the other activity they do over 24 hours. 
Robin L Foster & Kelsey Wallach - Does target training generalize to and reduce equine stress during trailer loading and rider mounting?
Can target training in a round-pen or other familiar low-stress environment generalize to high-stress activities like trailer loading and riding mounting? Can it lower the stress in these situations?
Ex: touch target with nose, stretch to touch target with nose, hold nose to target, follow target forwards, follow target backwards in a chain of events. Clicker was used to confirm. 
Divided conflict behaviours into stress and avoidance behaviours. Questionnaire to owners on charachteristics of the horses, six categories. One pretest, two posttests. Second posttest broke the targeting into smaller elements/simpler tasks instead of a chain of tasks.
Mounting: Posttest in simple tasks gave fewer conflict behaviours. The horses' personality predicted stress behaviours but not avoidance behaviours.
Loading: The horses did not do better on first posttest on loading, but at second posttests both stress and avoidance behaviours were lower, like with mounting. Personality predicted training time. Dimensions dominance and sociability.
Some target-training f ex backing was learned quicker. 
When training was broken down into simple steps, training in the low-stress environment facilitated target training and reduced stress and avoidance behaviours in more stressful situations.
Further research is needed (undergraduate student doing the study in a limited time), but prior training in a non-stressful context may facilitate training in a more stressful environment. 
Anna Fisker Hansen et al - Equine coat colour bias in potential performance horses
Performance and coat colour are not correlated, but historic change is seen in coat colour fashion. Does the fashion influence performance? Bias is not an error in judgement but a subjective opinion. Judgeing influenced by time limit, resulting in short-cuts, generalizing performance according to the colour of the horse.
British Breeding Futurity evaluations, analysing 7 years of data, looking at piebald and skewbalds and spotted horses, greys included. 
Block coloured and spotted having lower scores than other colours. Suggests there could be a bias in horse colour for judgeing. Will look further into if coloured horses have been bred mainly for the colour, even though these were primarily warmblods. 
Katrina Merkies and Paul McGreevy - Equine skull morphology and brain organization
Skull shape in dogs have been linked to morphology ans specific behaviours, long-skulles being calm, trainable, chase-prone. Short-skulled bold, more easily aggressive.
Skull-shape in horses not as diverse as in dogs. Hot-bloodied tend to be concave, cold-bloodied convex.
Post-mortem skulls of Standardbred type were used in the study. Skull weight, length, cranial width, zygomathic width, mandibular depth, nasal length, amygdala area/memory and learning, pituitary, olfactory pitch. Whorl location.
Not any correlation was noted to any measurements, but samples were all from the same breed and might have been too alike. The crainial length were more close than in the nasal index/along the nose. There was a wide range in both brain pitch and olfactory pitch, which suggests there might be differences in behaviour, related to brain organisation and skull shape, as there are in dogs.
The whorl correlated quite well with the location of the olfactory lobes within 1,5 cms. 
Melissa Voigt - Understanding and influencing human behaviours towards show horses
Stock-type horses in shows have an increased public attention, with an increased pressure to address welfare issues.
Recommendations: collaboration, definition, enforcement, communication, education, being proactive, reflective.
Three studies on stock-type show horse welfare in the US gave some central findings:
1. An incomplete understanding of welfare within the stock-type horse show industry.
2. Concern for those with lesser exeperience and knowledge to make sound decisions related to the treatment of horses in their care.
3. Unrealistic expectations and going for winning among professionals.
4. Excessions and overuse of the aids and induced excessive unnatural movement.
A need for understanding of the reasons for inhumane treatment is necessary, we need to understand why people do it. The Social Cognitive Theory on the one hand (moral standards, self-sanctions, moral behaviour) and rules, regulations, social norms on the other.

Moral disengagements; cognitive remodelling/because others do it, cognitive distortion, empathic decay

Primary behavioural factors include reinforcement from success to reinforcement-punishment pendulum. 
Primary cognitive factors are f ex understanding welfare, attitude towards horses.
Promoting empathy.
Discourage sanitized language that minimizes the harmful effects of behaviour on the horse, self and community. 
Emphasize investigating professionals and the practices they use. 
Create awareness, create dialogue with stskeholders. 
Encourage moral reasoning. 
Challenge perceptions of social norms. 
Promote education outreach. 
Understand influential factors, primary functions, horse and show horse welfare.
Christina Ikinger et al - Views of riders from different disciplines regarding horse husbandry
There are trends om the German horse market in concern about animal-friendliness of common husbandry practices. With a heterogenity in disciplines and more leisure riders, a lack of familiarity with basic knowledge has evolved, along with a high variety of services and their quality. Little known of the usefulness of introducing certification labels.
The lesser competitive riders preferred group housing to a higher extent. Nearly all, except show jumpers (but still a majority) would welcome a label certification.
Quality of facilities most important for show jumpers, adequate feeding regime for the others/dressage, western, gaited/leisure riders who had facilities ranked sixth. Regular access to pasture ranked second for all except show jumpers, who thought adequate feed regime, regular access to pasture coming further down. 
Katharina Wiegand et al - Differences and commonalities between equestrian disciplines on debate of welfare
Estimated 1,2 million horses in Germany, 3,7 million riders over 14 years old. Many different disciplines, horsebreeds and husbandey systems. A need of a joint discussion. 
Partnership with the horse nearly all considered very important, 86,5 for showjumpers being the least. Sport and competition was the most important motive for show jumpers, partnership for the western riders and nature experience for riders on gaited horses. 
The latter two groups agreed with the statemnt that the classic/olympic disciplines tend to feel somewhat better than other disciplines. The show jumpers agreed that riders in alternative disciplines lack a solid education in riding.
Regarding the attitude towards animal welfare, the show-jumpers do not assess this topic with the same importance as the other groups.
All riders did however agree that torunament- and leisure riders fit together. What they agreed most on was the enjoyment of riding and love for the horse.
A porster presentation by the same authors on factors on the attitudes showed that the importance of welfare did not differ substanstially between disciplines, but it is influenced by various factors and welfare indicators.
Jenny Burbage and Lorna Cameron - Breast health issues in female horse riders
The breast has very delicste structures such as the skin to support, no bone, no muscles.. Excessive breast motion during physical activity has been reported.
Bra fit - important to wear it correctly fitting, especially for larger sizes, 70-100 percent wear the wrong size.
Breast pain - percieved by 32 percent of female runners, can affect all sizes. There is a performance-increased upper body muscle activity during running, restricting upper body performance.
Horse riding is classed as a moderately intensitive exercise. It causes large vertical excursions of the uppper body.
An online questionnaire gave 1.324 responses. Small/AA to C, Large/D onwards were represented. 34/75 B being mean size, but the riding survey had much larger spread than running. Around half of sample on either size side, with 51 percent being large-breasted/D or larger. Almost half of the riders rode competitions.
40 percent experienced breast pain, increasing linearly with cup size. Sitting trot was rated by 58 as most painful activity, followed by canter, gallop and jumping. 21 percent experienced breast pain affected performance.
Upper body muscle pain and poor posture were the more prevalent of the bra fitting issues, significantly more among riders with large breasts.
27 percent used a sports bra exclusively, around 50 used it sometimes when riding. 17 percent reported breast pain a barrier for taking part in horse riding, compared to 8 in sports in general.
Alexandra Hampson and Hayley Randle - The influence of an eight week core fitness program on the equine back at sitting trot
Back pain and lameness in horses can be regonised as physical influence of the rider and  asymmetrical loading a eisk for potential damage. How does core training affect symmetry? Core stability - control the position and motion of the trunk ocer the pelvis to allow optimum production, transfer and control of force and motion to the terminal segment in integrated athletic activities. 
Evaluated left-right mean pressure.
A 22-minute unmpunted core fitness training program was carried out three times weekly for eight weeks by ten healthy dressage riders. They performed two ridden testa at sitting trot before and after.
Saddle mat with data logger, high speed camera were used to record data.
There was a significant decrease in left-right mean pressure difference in the test that was performed after the eight weeka
In the pressure maps from saddle pads, the peaks diminshed after the training program.
Total maximimal force increased but not significant, as the rider was more stable.
Mean stride length increased by 8,4 percent, but speed was not controlled.
Significant effect on improvement of rider symmetry and reduced peak pressures.

 Fler bilder från föregående dagar

More pictures from previous days


IMG_1728.jpgLönnar av alla slag.



 Morgonjoggare på Sea Wall, de flotta bostadskvarteren.



Signerat Arthur Erickson. Omtyckt arkitekt, sorgetåg när han dog.



 Gates of Chinatown.



 Sun Yat-Sen Park, oas i bruset.



Bambudumge i Sun Yat-Sen Park, barn lekte tittut.



 Fiskaffär i Chinatown.

Ständigt dessa luftledningar...

Presentaffär i Chinatown, lerfigurer i naturlig storlek.
Chinook Trail, tvärs över Kanada.

Fara vid Lynn Canyon Bridge.

... bron populär sedan lång tid.

 Med färjan från North Shores skogar till centrum.

Stanley Parks (totem)pålar...

... som berättar familjers historia.

Bänkarna vid English Bay Beach.


 West End gay community.