ISES onsdag 18 juli

Plenarföreläsning med Sue Dyson – Injury prevention. Selection/conformation, training, diet,
foot care:
Conformation – importance of balance and proportion and the relation with how the horse is carrying itself. Tall horses are more at risk of lameness than smaller ones, the plus 170 cms have 15 percent more risk than the under 165 cms. Straight hocks is a risk factor to the suspensory ligament, also the angle of the fetlocks.
Uneven front feet is another risk factor. The prevalence is similar in different levels of show jumping and dressage, but the horse is looking at a shorter competition life with uneven feet.
More risk factors: a curved coronary band, a large dorsal to palmar coronary band difference (back and front of foot).
Movement in bad rythm means dressage horses carry all weight on one hind leg in every step of trot, which will then put extra strain on the suspensory ligaments.
Regulate the naturally exuberant mover, let the muscles and ligaments adjust and develop first. Stress fractures occur also in young dressage and show jumping horses. Varied exercise prevents injuries, lungeing is one such good variation. Not the second day but the third will the horse be sore after strenous exercise. Lateral saddle slip may indicate hindleg lameness.
M. van Dierendonck – Hyperflexion ridden: may be more stressful than other positions, indicated by cortisol levels, but no difference in HR or HR variability. 
Gillian Tabor – Multifidus muscle (deep spinal stabilizer) and back pain: according to statistics, back pain occurs in dressage horses to 40 percent, TB horses in training 25 percent, humans 28,5 percent.
The spinal stability system consists of active and passive spinal subsystems and neural control system. In humans, exercises can prevent back pain to reoccur. After doing six carrot stretches x five times five days a week, one could see increase in the multifidus at 6 weeks and none in the control group. There was no further increase at 12 weeks.
Paul McGreevy – Use of whips in racing: whip use on the racetrack is the most televised abuse to animals.  Visible indentation was seen on 83 percent of impacts (slow motion video), the flank (forbidden area according to rules) was struck in 75 percent of impacts, 64 percent of whip contact was with non padded part of the whip (about half of the whip's length being padded).
Whip rules are not and cannot be properly policed, padded whips do not safeguard horses from pain. 
Plenarföreläsning med Andrew Hemming – Equine behavioural neuroscience: experience and genetic programming:
Horse brain half of human; 700 grammes and 1.400 respectively. Human frontal lobe is much more developed, it directs decision making processes, therefore reptilian behaviour like fight and flight is nearer in the horse. Basal ganglia is vital in decision making, with the striatum dopamin processing. Human and equine striatum are very similar. Striatum function = reward processing, but also activated during stress (longtime or cronic), action seleciton, motor control, habit learning (repeted practice leads to automotive behaviour). Neural activity spreads in the striatum parts as success. 
Dopamin release in horses: elevated dopamine appears to enhance inflexible habitual responding in the horse. Eye blink rate could be used on screening abnormal behaviours; crib-biters show significant difference in dopamine levels.
K Merkies – Influence of arousal in humans, horse-human relationship: horses around physically stressed people got lower HR. Psycologically stressed or calm gave no difference in the horse, the more nervous the person, the lower HR in horse. Nervous people should not pose greater risks around horses than the not nervous. The lower the head position, the lower the HR. Study background was using horses in therapy, with humans not interacting with the horse, just acting around them or standing still. 
Cathrynne Henshall – Escape- and avoidance learning in round pen horse training: avoidance uses the horse's response rather than its "attitude" or inferred cognition to judge the aversiveness of stimuli. 
Manuel Mengoli – Equine appeasing pheromone (EAP) to modify stress coping strategies: More successful and less mistakes in triangle and circle test than without nasal gel with EAP. Amygdala works on learning and experience, EAP and the lymbic system. Permit to build a concept instead of automatic response; benefit of learn to learn. Evaluate emotional state as EAP could be a tool to help horses filter environmental information and to focus on exercises rather than distractions.
Jodi de Araugo – Commonplace training methods: Human-horse bond varied according to training method. Behaviourist training gives less intimate relationship than natural horsemanship or eclectic training (various methods being used). Anxiety and avoidance were used as definitions for attachment/intimate relationship.
Lesley Hawson – Rider inputs: Differences between force in right or left legs. The forgotten muscle; cutaneus trunci (moves when horse gets a fly, sits under the riders leg, does not habituate easily, so therefore prime subject for repetitive cues. Right-handed riders held their left hand higher. We don't know what riders do and riders don't know what they do.
Inga Wolframm – Relationships between horses and female riders: Matching personality traits were good, mediocre when not matched. When buying a horse, should take that match into consideration. Human personality components: excitability, liveliness, consideration, leadership. Horse personality components: emotional reactivity, ability to learn, gregariousness, (percieved) cooperation.
Weak positive correlations showed between liveliness (rider)–ability to learn (horse) and gregariousness (horse), excitability (rider)–emotional reactivity (horse), leadership (rider)–ability to learn (horse) and cooperation (horse), consideration (rider)–gregariousness (horse).
Undersökningen gjord med drygt 2.500 svar i internetenkät. Lite intressant att en tuffare ryttare inte funkar så bra med en lättlärd och samarbetsvillig häst, men sådana exempel har man nog sett.
M Becker-Birk – HR and performing a public presentation: HR was higher in the rider only on the day of performance than in training, but cortisol levels were higher in the horses (not the rider) on the day of performance, which might be because of visitors walking through the stables and prepaprations. Spectators were therefore more stressful for riders than for horses.
Jo Winfield – Elite and non elite riders over two different fences in show jumping competition: Position and influence. Hip angle greater in elite group, stable in body, looks as if the rider doesn't do much. On non-elite riders there was a lot of movement in upper body and lower legs. 
Plenarföreläsning med Inga Wolframm – Rider coaching: Can be specifically difficult, because the interaction between rider and horse is subtle and quick, so important mechanisms can be missed. Riding coaches may be helped by other sports coaching practices.
1 Conveying information, 2. Structuring practice, 3. Providing feedback. Reflective practice, reflective card on decision making f ex, with focus for reflection like stimulus, information, timing, responsibility, consequences. Video analysis, tactical analysis, facilitation of learning a novel task, biofeedback/training of stress reduction.
Mary Wanless – Precise descriptive language to make riding skills more accesible: Wordscape versus brainscape, let the penny drop from the wordscape to the brainscape and make a connection.
Emma Scott – Effect of experience on rein contact angles: Walk and canter similar, biggest difference in sitting and rising trot. Novice riders show a more rigid position, while the experienced riders adapted their position to the horse.
Melissa Voigt – Learner-centered strategies: Riders wrote in drill books and used the exercises.
Puh, min presentation är gjord!!! Förstås klarade jag inte två minuter, ingen gjorde. Trots att jag pratade fortare och fortare när den röda skylten for upp. Inga konstiga frågor, utom en som var mer speciell: deltagaren hade fått höra att det var bättre att både häst och ryttare var nya ifråga om fälttävlan, och skulle helst starta med hunting, där de skulle forma ett par tillsammans, i stället för att en erfaren fälttävlansryttare skolade in hästen över terränghinder. Jag hänvisade till "mina" instruktörers tips om att göra små övningar där man kan koncentrera sig på känslan i stället för att göra tekniskt rätt, och hon var nöjd med det. Verkade rätt OK mottaget, även om det kändes smått handikappande att komma efter Mary Wanless...
Märkligt nog hade min rumskamrat från förra året fått precis samma presentationstid som jag, i ett annat grupprum. Hade varit roligt att lyssna på, eftersom hon också studerar känslan för ridning, fast i fysisk rörelse.
Härligt med all denna samlade kunskap. Och roliga, glada människor! Gick ut och åt på kvällen, puben bredvid Pollock Halls, där de flesta bodde. Jag bodde bättre, om man inte har väldigt höga krav på att slippa umgås med folk; mysigare, mer centralt och betydligt billigare. Studentrummen verkade inte vara några under av komfort, heller. Sen fick jag förstås promenera en del, men det var ju med i beräkningen, eftersom konferenser är rätt stillasittande. Särskilt kvällsvandringen från bussen till vandrarhemmet var stämningsfull och övervakad av Edinburgh Castle badande i fasadbelysning.
Wine reception på tisdagen var bra, utsedda personer minglade omkring och såg till att pratet kom igång, sen höll man faktiskt ihop lite under hela konferensen med dem man träffat på reception. Som förresten ägde rum i det märkliga kråkslottet överst till höger i bildraden.



Nej, så hör soligt visade sig inte Pollock Halls varje dag, skojig byggnad!



Riktigt tjockt grått regn över de gröna kullarna bakom veterinärhögskolan.



Veterinärhögskolan, där konferensen hölls.



Regnet lättar, men molnen hänger fortfarande tunga.



Min poster på ämnet att lära ut känslan för ridning. Dubbelklicka!


Utsikten från mitt fönster i vandrarhemmets sovsal, livlig stadsbild dag som natt.


David Humes grav, en av anhalterna på tisdagens spökrunda.


Nattpromenad mot vandrar-hemmet längs Princes Street med vy av Edinburgh Castle.